The Hindi language is one of the most spoken languages in the world with over 600 million speakers, making it the fourth most spoken language globally. It is the official language of India and the second most spoken language in the country after English. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, which has a total of 52 letters.
The Devanagari script consists of 12 vowels, also known as Swar, and 40 consonants, also known as Vyanjan. The vowels are pronounced as separate sounds and are placed above, below, or beside the consonants to form different words. The vowels in Hindi are:
अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, अं, अः
The first 11 vowels are known as Suddha Swar, while the last two are known as Vyanjan Swar. The Suddha Swar are pronounced as pure sounds without any consonantal sound, while the Vyanjan Swar are pronounced with a consonantal sound.
The consonants in Hindi are divided into five groups based on their pronunciation, known as Ka, Kha, Ga, Gha, and Nga. Each group consists of five consonants with a similar pronunciation. The consonants in Hindi are:
क, ख, ग, घ, ङ
च, छ, ज, झ, ञ
ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण
त, थ, द, ध, न
प, फ, ब, भ, म
Each consonant in Hindi has a unique sound, and when combined with vowels, they form different words.
In addition to the 52 letters in the Devanagari script, Hindi also has several diacritical marks, known as Matra, which are used to modify the pronunciation of certain vowels and consonants. These marks are placed above, below, or beside the letters to indicate the sound modification.
In conclusion, the Hindi language has a total of 52 letters in the Devanagari script, including 12 vowels and 40 consonants. The language is widely spoken in India and is known for its unique script and pronunciation. If you are interested in learning Hindi, understanding the letters and their pronunciation is an essential first step.